Creative industries

Creative industries comprise activities related to the creation, production and/or distribution of creative goods and services as well as with the integration of creative elements into wider processes and other sectors. Creative industries are sometimes referred to as the cultural industries although the two terms are not synonymous. According to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), cultural industries refer to industries which combine the creation, production and commercialisation of creative contents which are intangible and cultural in nature. The contents are typically protected by copyright and can take the form of a good or a service. Cultural industries generally include printing, publishing and multimedia, audiovisual, phonographic and cinematographic productions as well as crafts and design.

The term creative industries encompasses a broader range of activities which include the cultural industries as well as all cultural or artistic production, whether live or produced as an individual unit. The creative industries are those in which the product or service contains a substantial element of artistic or creative endeavour and include activities such as architecture and advertising. The Priority Sector Report on the Creative and Cultural Industries published under the European Cluster Observatory argued for a common term for creative and cultural industries as it views both terms as conceptually linked, similar and to a certain level interchangeable. Creative industries thus consist of activities drawing on advertising, architecture, art, crafts, design, fashion, film, music, performing arts, publishing, R&D, software, toys and games, TV and radio, and video games.

The classification methodology for emerging industries assigned the NACE codes listed below to the creative industries. The codes shown in italics were identified in addition to those included in the priority sector report on the creative and cultural industries. These additional codes include: the manufacturing of products and instruments used in the creative industries; the sale, distribution and promotion of creative goods (particularly online); information and communications technologies which play an increasingly important role in the creative sector; legal activities (related to i.a. intellectual property); and event management.

NACE code    Description
1811 Printing of daily newspapers
1812 Other printing
1813 Pre-press and pre-media services
1814 Bookbinding industry
1820 Reproduction of recorded media
2012 Manufacture of dyes and pigments
2229 Manufacture of other plastic products
2630 Manufacture of communication equipment
2640 Manufacture of consumer electronics
2670 Manufacture of optical instruments and photographic equipment
2680 Manufacture of magnetic and optical media
2732 Manufacture of other electronic and electric wires and cables
2829 Manufacture of other general-purpose machinery n.e.c.
2899 Manufacture of other special-purpose machinery n.e.c.
3220 Industry of musical instruments
4618 Agents specialised in the sale of other particular products
4666 Wholesale of other office machinery and equipment
4761 Retail sale of books in specialised stores
4762 Retail sale of newspapers and stationery in specialised stores
4763 Retail sale of music and video recordings in specialised stores
4791 Retail sale via mail order houses or via Internet
5811 Book publishing
5812 Publishing of directories and mailing lists
5813 Publishing of newspapers
5814 Publishing of journals and periodicals
5819 Other publishing activities
5821 Publisher of computer games
5829 Other software publishing
5911 Motion picture, video and television programme production activities
5912 Motion picture, video and television programme post-production activities
5913 Motion picture, video and television programme distribution activities
5914 Motion picture projection activities
5920 Sound recording and music publishing activities
6010 Radio broadcasting
6020 Television programming and broadcasting activities
6110 Wired telecommunications activities
6120 Wireless telecommunications activities
6190 Other telecommunications activities
6201 Computer programming activities
6202 Computer consultancy activities
6209 Other information technology and computer service activities
6311 Data processing, hosting and related activities
6312 Web portals
6391 News agency activities
6910 Legal activities
7021 Public relations and communication activities
7022 Business and other management consultancy activities
7111 Architect's office
7112 Engineering activities and related technical consultancy
7311 Advertising agencies
7312 Media representation
7410 Specialised design activities
7420 Photographic activities
7430 Translation and interpretation activities
7722 Renting of video tapes and disks
7810 Activities of employment placement agencies
8230 Organisation of conventions and trade shows
8299 Other business support service activities n.e.c.
8552 Cultural education
8559 Other education n.e.c.
9001 Performing artists and producers of artistics and literary work
9002 Support activities to performing arts
9003 Artists, writers, journalists and others
9004 Theatre and concert hall companies etc.
9101 Libraries and archives
9102 Museums
9103 Institutions for the preservation of historical sites and buildings and similar visitor attractions